|Simon T, Berthold F, Borkhardt A, Kremens B, De Carolis B, Hero B||Treatment and outcomes of patients with relapsed, high-risk neuroblastoma: results of German trials. [+]||Pediatr Blood Cancer 2011, 56: 578|
|BACKGROUND: The prognosis of high-risk neuroblastoma patients has improved over the last decades. However, many patients experience relapse after successful initial treatment. We retrospectively analyzed the long-term outcome of relapsed patients of three consecutive national neuroblastoma trials. METHODS: Patients were included when they fulfilled all of the following criteria: Age at diagnosis being 1 year or older, first diagnosis between 1990 and 2007, stage 4 disease or stage 3 neuroblastoma with MYCN amplification, and relapse or progression after successful first-line autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). RESULTS: A total of 451 high-risk neuroblastoma patients 1 year or older underwent ASCT during first-line treatment, 253 experienced recurrence of disease, 158 received salvage chemotherapy, and 23 of them finally underwent a second ASCT. These 23 patients had a better median survival (2.08 years) and 3-year survival rate from recurrence (43.5 ± 10.9%) compared to 74 patients who had no second chemotherapy (median survival 0.24 years, 3-year survival rate 4.0 ± 2.6%) and 135 patients who underwent second-line chemotherapy but did not undergo second ASCT (median survival of 0.89 years, 3-year survival rate 9.6 ± 2.8%, P < 0.001). By February 2010, 3/23 patients were in complete remission, 3/23 in very good partial remission, 1/23 in partial remission, 14/23 patients died of disease after successful second ASCT, and 2/23 died of complications due to second ASCT. CONCLUSION: Intensive second-line therapy is feasible. A small subgroup of relapsed high-risk neuroblastoma patients may benefit from intensive relapse chemotherapy and second ASCT. The potential of long-term survival justifies clinical trials on intensive second-line treatment.|
|Simon T, Hero B, Faldum A, Handgretinger R, Schrappe M, Klingebiel T, Berthold F||Long term outcome of high-risk neuroblastoma patients after immunotherapy with antibody ch14. 18 or oral metronomic chemotherapy. [+]||BMC Cancer 2011, 18; 11: 21.|
|BACKGROUND: The treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma patients consists of multimodal induction therapy to achieve remission followed by consolidation therapy to prevent relapses. However, the type of consolidation therapy is still discussed controversial. We applied metronomic chemotherapy in the prospective NB90 trial and monoclonal anti-GD2-antibody (MAB) ch14.18 in the NB97 trial. Here, we present the long term outcome data of the patient cohort. METHODS: A total of 334 stage 4 neuroblastoma patients one year or older were included. All patients successfully completed the induction therapy. In the NB90 trial, 99 patients received at least one cycle of the oral maintenance chemotherapy (NB90 MT, 12 alternating cycles of oral melphalan/etoposide and vincristine/cyclophosphamide). In the NB97 trial, 166 patients commenced the MAB ch14.18 consolidation therapy (six cycles over 12 months). Patients who received no maintenance therapy according to the NB90 protocol or by refusal in NB97 (n = 69) served as controls. RESULTS: The median observation time was 11.11 years. The nine-year event-free survival rates were 41 ± 4%, 31 ± 5%, and 32 ± 6% for MAB ch14.18, NB90 MT, and no consolidation, respectively (p = 0.098). In contrast to earlier reports, MAB ch14.18 treatment improved the long-term outcome compared to no additional therapy (p = 0.038). The overall survival was better in the MAB ch14.18-treated group (9-y-OS 46 ± 4%) compared to NB90 MT (34 ± 5%, p = 0.026) and to no consolidation (35 ± 6%, p = 0.019). Multivariable Cox regression analysis revealed ch14.18 consolidation to improve outcome compared to no consolidation, however, no difference between NB90 MT and MAB ch14.18-treated patients was found. CONCLUSIONS: Follow-up analysis of the patient cohort indicated that immunotherapy with MAB ch14.18 may prevent late relapses. Finally, metronomic oral maintenance chemotherapy also appeared effective.|
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